It will be necessary to resupply supplies and maybe even relocate a camp over a longer period of time, which would need the use of containers and other transportation methods.


You’ll learn how to make your own, from basic water containers to firing your own clay pots to creating boats in this class. In one chapter, I combined containers and conveyances since they both have something to do with transportation: one is concerned with the movement of products, while the other is concerned with the transportation of food.




Water containers should be made of a material that allows you to use them to transport water over long distances while also using them as cooking utensils when camping. Generally speaking, metal is the greatest choice since it may be directly inserted into the flames. 


You may also fold a piece of canvas in half and stitch it together to form a container that can transport many gallons of water over a long distance. 

A procedure known as stone boiling may be used to shape rawhide into a storage container (see the next section). Wooden vessels may also be carved and burned as a fuel source.


 Throughout history, wooden bowls and trenchers have been used to hold a wide variety of liquids in various configurations. The kuksa, also known as the Sami cup, was carved or burned from a birch tree burl.




Birch bark is a kind of tree bark that is native to North America.
Any bark that has been collected in the spring
Animals’ stomachs are a fascinating subject (better for carrying than cooking)





In order to create a burn container, start a fire on a flat piece of wood. Maintain control over the circular burn in order to push further into the material by alternating between burning and scraping the raw material, burning and scraping again, and shaping the raw material into a vessel.




Stone boiling is a method of sanitizing water or cooking food that does not need the use of a metal or nonflammable container. 

The pebbles must be heated over an open fire until they are burning hot, and then they must be transferred to a container of water in order for it to reach boiling point. It is best not to use rocks that are near water or porous rocks such as limestone. 


Look for rocks that are around the size of a fist or a little smaller. If smaller rocks are all you can locate, you may make do with them, but keep in mind that they will not perform as well as larger ones. 


Keep in mind that the stones will cause the water to displace, thus the size of the container you select will determine what you can achieve in this area. 


If there is a possibility that the container you are using could catch fire, lower the pebbles into the water and hold them there for a few seconds before dropping them into the water.


Using stones to boil is a clumsy and perhaps hazardous method. To manage the rocks, you’ll need a decent pair of tongs or a Y branch with another stick that you can use to hold them in place. With the simple stick, guide the rocks into the Y branch so that you may keep them in place.


 Once the rock has been retrieved from the fire and placed into the container, be sure to knock any ash off of it before putting it into it. For stone boiling, I’ve experimented with a variety of containers ranging from dry bags to safety helmets.


 Almost everything will work perfectly as long as you are cautious about what you do. It is also possible to use natural containers if you have the necessary time to create them.


Even better, you may line a hole in the ground with a waterproof tarp and then boil the water in the pit. The same method may also be used to boil food; however, it may take many boils before the food is thoroughly cooked. 



Simply ensure that the stones are completely dry and free of dirt and debris before using them. Prepare a big fire with a healthy bed of coals on the hearth. Place the boulders on top of the coal bed and continue to burn on top of them. It is time to utilize the stones when the red light appears on their surfaces.




Baskets are an excellent option for transporting any things that are not liquid in nature. People have been using enormous pack baskets to transport their whole camp for thousands of years! 



The only restrictions are the spacing between the weaves and the overall size of the basket, which are both adjustable. Collecting edibles may be accomplished using a tiny basket. Baskets may also be used to conceal some types of traps.





Similarly to fired clay containers, which have been in use for thousands of years, terracotta vessels are another sort of container. Even though the method of creating clay pots is straightforward, it is essential that each stage be carried out carefully and thoroughly since even the tiniest error might undermine the vessel’s structural integrity during and after the burning process.





First and foremost, you’ll need to gather a substantial amount of clay. Except if you live in a location with clay-based soil, you will have to go searching for this. Look for a sticky and tacky mud layer in the mud along stream beds and riverbanks by digging around in it.


 Whether you roll this material into a ball, you may observe if it holds together without shattering excessively. If this is the case, there is certainly some clay in this substance. Clay may be found in a variety of hues ranging from red to gray to white.


Once you’ve gathered what you think to be the finest clay available, you should store it in a container of some kind. When you go back to camp, spread the clay out on a tarp and let it to cure entirely in the sun. 



Remove any impurities such as stones, sticks, or grass after it has dried by crushing it as finely as possible with your hands or pushing it through a mesh to remove any remaining pollutants after it has dried. 



Keep in mind that even a single blade of grass left in the clay might cause a pot to be destroyed during the burning process. During the burning process, the moisture from the grass will evaporate and cause a hole in the side of your pot to blast out!


Water and a binder will be required in order to transform the crushed clay into something that can be molded. The binder is responsible for giving the clay some stiffness while also making it formable. Dry cattail fluff, broken shell, and sand are all great binders for a variety of projects.



On a level surface or a stump, combine the clay, water, and binder one handful at a time until well combined. Approximately one-third of the mix should be binder, and just enough water should be added to make the clay simple to shape and prevent the clay from cracking throughout the pot-making process. 




When you are able to roll out a pinky-sized coil and tie it in a loose knot in an over-and-under pattern without it splitting, you have achieved the proper consistency. Smooth rough portions of the pot using your hands after they have been wetted with a little water. 


Make certain that there are no sharp angles and that only rounded corners are used. Once the pot has been made, it should be placed in the sun or by a fire until it has completely dried.




Coil pots are both visually appealing and simple to construct. Begin with a flat ball of clay that is comparable to a pancake in shape. To finish, roll a long tube out of the remaining clay and wrap it around the base in coils, stacking them until you reach the appropriate height. Using your fingertips and a little water, smooth up the interior of the saucepan. 




To begin making a pinch pot, begin with a ball of clay that is appropriate for the size of the pot you want to create. Place your thumbs in the middle of the clay and gradually squeeze it all around you, squeezing and tugging the clay between your thumb and fingers. 


Continue pinching and tugging outward from the center of the pot, shaping it until it achieves the desired shape and size.





Once the pot is dry both inside and out, top and bottom, it is ready to be burnt.
I have discovered that resinous woods like pine work extremely well for this process because they fill the pores of the pot very effectively and provide a type of glaze over the completed result. Start by placing your pot in the middle of the area where you wish to construct the fire.



 Make a platform of sticks to support the pot and try to lift it off the ground. After that, start a fire around the pot to completely immerse it in heat. Precautions should be taken to ensure that no huge log or stick from the fire falls on it while it is being fired.



Make use of a large number of smaller sticks since this fire will need to burn for many hours. After that, let the fire to fully extinguish, burning down to ashes, and then cooling before attempting to disrupt or remove the pot from the fire. 



Pots are easily broken throughout the procedure, so I recommend making several at a time to assure that at least a few of them will survive the process. At this time, do not even consider adding handles to your project!

Keep things as basic as possible since this will increase your chances of success.





Leathers may also be used to create containers known as jackware, which are made of leather. Begin by sketching a basic design that looks like the bottom of an hourglass, with a 2″-long neck and a 1″-wide base. In order to eventually attach rope handles to the container, drill two holes on each side of its body.



 Leaving enough space for a second row of stitches all around the leather, except at the entrance, is recommended. After cutting out the leather with a design, dunk it in water for a few minutes so that it may be molded. Sew the container together so that just the hole at the top of the neck is left open at the top. 



Then, using the sand that has been cooked in the fire, fill the container that has been made and sewn. Using a ramming stick, pack it in as firmly as possible (any stick about 1″ in diameter will do). 



Fill the container with sand until it reaches the very top and set it aside to dry for a few days. As soon as it has dried, take the sand from the container and immediately rinse it with water to eliminate any leftover particles.
Pour melted beeswax along the interior seams of the container to ensure that it is completely sealed in place.



If you want to keep it closed, you may even construct a stopper out of wood. You may now add a rope or strap to serve as a handle if desired.


The only place you’ll find gourds in the wild is if you plant them in a permanent shelter or go looking for them around an old farmhouse. Gourds were utilized for a variety of camp things, including containers, ladles, and cups, by both Native Americans and pioneers.



Gourds are available in a variety of forms and sizes. As soon as they have dried, sand or scrape the outer skin off the gourd, cut it open, and scoop out any membranes or seeds that may have formed on the inside.
Then cut them into any shape you like and seal them with beeswax.




When it comes to boats, there are many options that can carry you and your equipment if required.




When it comes to water transportation, a raft is a basic conveyance that may be used to move you and or your goods over long distances. Logs are the most effective for this, but since they are round, you must bind at least two of them together to provide a firm platform to prevent them from rolling about in the water. 




In an emergency, tying two or three logs together at the end that you want to straddle while floating down a brook or river (using shear lashings and clover hitches) will be sufficient. Keep an eye out for the hazards that lay underneath you as you travel—not just animals, but also snags and boulders that might capture your clothes or legs and pull you off the raft if the current is strong enough to do so. 


If you have the opportunity to construct a more secure raft, lashing your logs together on both ends is recommended.



 Even on a hot day, make an effort to keep your feet entirely out of the water when sitting on the raft. Make certain that the raft has adequate width for you to accomplish this. 


Consider using thinner cross members on the ends of the raft and lashing them together to secure the logs in place instead of thicker ones if you are limited on cordage. 


Creating a catamaran-style structure out of a single log in the centre and smaller logs connected to each side of the center log on cross members is a third possibility. This watercraft should be navigated by pointing the snout of the center log down the canal and using a pole or paddle to direct it down the river.



You may construct a deck raft by connecting multiple logs together to create a bigger deck surface area. You may assemble this deck in a number of ways, based on the materials you currently have on hand and your preferences. It is possible to remove the log dogs when you have finished utilizing the raft and transport them back to camp for another usage.


A raft deck used to be constructed using these U-shaped brackets that were hammered into two logs that were placed side by side and then staggered to provide an even bigger surface area. Using nails pushed into the cross members of the deck raft, a more permanent installation is achieved.


 You may also use the cordage to tie the logs together and retrieve it at the conclusion of the journey. Deckstyle rafts provide the ability to construct a steering rudder on the rear of the raft that is constructed into a raised bracket to aid in navigation. 


Additionally, these deck rafts may be big enough to accommodate a sleeping bag and shelter tent. If you plan on doing lengthy excursions, you may simply add a seat to your vehicle.




A long-term kit (see Chapter 1) may be built using an oilcloth tarp, which I indicated when we were talking about long-term planning. This material is lightweight enough to be utilized as a sail for your raft, if you want to do so. When you are putting your raft together, cut a slot in the central log approximately 8–10 inches into the deck so that a mast may be inserted into it. 



Use a green sapling with a diameter of about 3″ and shave the end of it slightly so that it screws tightly into this hole. Using the existing tie-outs on your Tentsmiths-style tarp, you can lace the tarp up one side of the mast pole and secure it with a bungee cord. 



The outside of the sail should be braced with a diagonal bracing pole of approximately 1″ diameter, which should be attached to the mast about twice its length from the bottom to the upper corner. 


Another piece of rope should be tied to the near corner to control the sail’s direction into and away from the wind. You may tie a loop of rope around the mast to keep it in place, but be careful not to knot it too tightly. 

You want the mast to be able to swing in order for the sail to respond to the wind.




Putting a sail on a boat


A rudder is a piece of equipment that enables you to direct your boat left or right while going. A pair of rudders is simply a long oar that is connected to the rear of a raft and is used to propel it through the water.


You’ll need a fixed item or bracket to keep the rudder in place while you’re navigating the boat. You’ll also need something to act as a fulcrum for the rudder. Both of these may be simply fashioned by inserting a Y branch into a hole that is comparable to the mast hole at the back of the vessel, as shown below.




If you want to fish or take a break from sailing, you may need to moor your boat.
Creating an anchor is a straightforward process, and the materials you choose are entirely up to your discretion. A simple bag of rocks strung on a string linked to the raft would suffice in this situation.
You can even make anything out of railway plates if you have the right tools.





The phrases paddle and oar are sometimes used interchangeably, yet there is a significant distinction between the two. Oars are often sold in pairs and are longer and thinner than other types of rowing equipment. They are attached to a rowing craft using an anchoring bracket that may be fastened to the boat.



Paddles are available in a variety of shapes and sizes, and may be single or double-sided. Paddles are used to propel a boat forward without the need of hands. The kind of material used in the construction of either paddles or oars may make a significant difference in the ease with which you can control the ship.





Paddles make it much simpler to handle a boat, which is why they are widely sought-after watersports equipment. In reality, Native American paddles crafted by hand were often elaborately painted and carved pieces of art in their own right. Being able to correctly carve a wooden paddle is a useful talent to have in your arsenal. Hardwoods are the best choice for this project.



Make sure that the pieces are at least 6″ broad so that they may be used as a functional paddle. The length is entirely up to you, but a good starting point is something that is as long as the space between your chin and the surface of the ground. Then there are shorter lengths with larger blades that may be used as sculling paddles or for other purposes.





Bull boats were used by several Native American tribes to transport skins, foodstuffs, and firewood from upriver places back to their camps. These boats were designed to be lightweight so that they could be transported overland and stored until required. Because the bull boat is round, the majority of the navigation is accomplished by sculling the paddle. 



A timber frame was used to construct the first bull boats, which were covered with a skinned green buffalo hide, with the hair on the waterside. Upon drying into rawhide, the skin solidified into a strong outer shell that was both waterproof and long-lasting. The tail was often left on the hide and used as a tug strap, which was quite convenient.


A tarp or a hefty piece of canvas may still be used as a skin for a bull boat today, and the process is still quite simple. It is important to note that using plastic or poly tarps for these crafts is not a good idea since they are prone to shred quickly if they get entangled in anything in shallow water.



To construct the structure of a bull boat, gather numerous bendable saplings measuring 1″–2″ in diameter for the hull. To begin, choose the size of the hoop that you want to use for the completed product.


Eventually, this will be the top of the boat or the gunnels on each side of it. Place this hoop on the ground and then secure it with a sapling that has been twisted from end to end across the middle. 


Bend four additional samples and lash them at a distance of half their original length in both directions. You now have a sturdy frame that can be “skinned” to form the shape of your boat, if desired. 



For the most effective application of the skin, it is advisable to flip the frame upright on top of the tarp that you want to use, bringing any surplus material into the frame. If the tarp does not have tie-outs, use toggles or tiny stones to hold it snugly within the frame if it does not have them. 

Make a wreath or a flotation circle around the exterior of the boat to give it more buoyancy and stability. 


To assemble this wreath, drive stakes into the ground and arrange bows on top of the staked frame, tying them together around the circumference of the boat. Continue with the frame construction as before, then skin it in the same manner as previously. The ability of this kind of watercraft to float is one of its primary advantages.





Watercraft such as dugouts, which are basically canoe-style boats, are among the most durable available. Having said that, they are also quite time-consuming. You will want a suitable tree of lighter wood, such as poplar, for this project.


 Poplar wood will be simpler to carve or burn out than other types of wood, regardless of the technique you use. Daniel Boone’s dugout was constructed from a yellow or tulip poplar tree, according to legend. In order to complete this project, you will need a solid axe as well as a few other carving equipment. 



A log that is at least one and a half times wider than you and around 8’–12′ in length should be used. The size is determined by the amount of time you have available and the amount of equipment you are transporting.


Once the log has been prepared, slice the ends into a wedge form to aid in the vessel’s ability to cut through liquids. After that, you will need to remove the bark off the log, which will be lot simpler in the spring than it would be in the winter.



 It is now necessary to hew the log in preparation for further processing. Set up a hewing line on the log so that it is about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the log. (See illustration.) Creating a visible chalk line is as easy as rubbing a thread with charcoal and pressing it down on both sides to produce a visible line that will guide you when you cut the rope.


Remove the log’s top by slicing it into a series of V notches approximately 3′ apart, and then cut it down to the line. Turn the log over and use your axe to hack away the regions between the V cuts on the log’s side. This procedure is referred to as “hewing the log,” and it is the same procedure that is used to create dimensional lumber from a circular log. 



Then roll the log back up to the top and pick which technique you will use to carve out the central hollow, which will serve as your seating area. Making a choice on whether to burn or carve should be dependent on the instruments at hand. In addition to using an axe, you may want to use an adze tool to dig out the area you have created.



 Either way, you may burn down the cavity like you would a bowl, scraping it down with a spatula as you go. Continue this process until you achieve the required depth and breadth of the cavity. The benefit of excavating is that the log will dry more slowly, which reduces the likelihood of it cracking as a result.
a dugout canoe





While a pack frame is neither a container or a mode of transportation, it enables you to easily transport objects over long distances. In addition to a basic triangle of three sticks, pack frames may be made out of bent-wood hoop frames or pack boards, among other materials. 



It is the capacity to remove the pack from the frame and utilize it for other purposes, such as transporting fuel or wildlife, that makes frames so useful for long-term expeditions.



Straps for your frame may be readily made from rope, webbing, or mule tape, depending on your preference.





  • In the construction of watercraft, keep in mind that the vessel must displace more water by volume than the weight that it is meant to transport.
  • 2. Keep in mind that a smaller ship, like as a bull boat, may be modified to pull a portion of your goods if required, but never put all of your eggs in one basket at the same time. In the event that the boat you are travelling in tips or flips, transport your equipment on a smaller boat that you can pull behind it.
  • 3. Make sure to construct your watercraft near a body of water so that you will not have to transport it a long distance after it is finished.
  • In the event that you are burning the cavity for a dugout, spread some mud around the borders of the cavity near your workplace to function as a fire retardant.
  • 5. If transportation is not an option, you may be amazed at how little weight you can easily carry over a long distance on your back. The recommended weight limit for the typical individual is 30 pounds. Each load will be lighter, and you will be able to carry more equipment if you are able to make many trips to your camp area with supplies.