Sustainability has become a buzzword in both large and small businesses. Sustainability is a top priority for Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (WMT), McDonald’s Corporation (MCD), and many other real corporate behemoths.  Other businesses are also under pressure to demonstrate how they plan to commit to offer goods and services in a sustainable way. Of course, this raises the question of what all of this entails.

The terms ESG (environment, social, and governance) or SRI (socially responsible investment) can be used to describe corporate investment sustainability.

Meeting current needs without jeopardizing future generations’ potential to fulfill theirs is the most common definition of sustainability. It is built on three pillars: fiscal, environmental, and social concerns. People, earth, and income are the three foundations that are referred to informally.

Investors who want not only financial gain but also social good are becoming more concerned with corporate sustainability.
Environmental, socially conscious, and governance investing are the three foundations of sustainable investing.

Corporate sustainability can eventually provide a strategic advantage to a company’s bottom line, thanks to the growth of socially responsible funds and ETFs.

The Ecological Pillar.
The environmental pillar is always the one that receives the most coverage. Companies are concentrating on lowering their carbon footprints, packaging waste, water use, and overall environmental impact. Companies also discovered that having a favorable environmental effect will also have a positive financial impact. Reducing the amount of plastic used in manufacturing, for example, typically lowers net spending on such products. Walmart focused on packaging as part of a zero-waste campaign, encouraging suppliers to use less packaging and to source more of it from recycled or reclaimed products.

Other industries, such as mining or food processing, who have an undeniable and apparent environmental effect, address the environmental cornerstone through benchmarking and reducing. One of the difficulties with the environmental pillar is that a company’s effect is often not entirely costed, leaving externalities unaccounted for. Since businesses are not necessarily responsible for the waste they generate, calculating the total costs of drainage, carbon dioxide, land reclamation, and waste in general is difficult. This is where benchmarking steps in to help measure those externalities so that success can be measured and recorded in a meaningful way.

The Social Foundation
Another ill-defined term is social licence, which is linked to the social foundation. Employees, owners, and the society in which it exists should both endorse and approve of a profitable enterprise. The methods for gaining and keeping this patronage vary, but it all boils down to treating workers equally and being a decent friend and neighborhood member both locally and internationally.


12 trillion dollars
According to the United States Forum on Fair and Responsible Investment, sustainable, responsible, and impact investing increased by more than 38% from $8.7 trillion in 2016 to $12 trillion in 2018.

Businesses refocus on workforce satisfaction and participation plans, which provide more responsive perks including improved pregnancy and paternity benefits, flexible schedules, and learning and growth programs. Companies have come up with a variety of ways to contribute back to the city, including fundraising, patronage, grants, and investments in local civic programs.


A company must be mindful of how the supply chain is being filled on a global social scale. Is the final product made of child labor? Is anyone getting a decent wage? Is the workplace a safe place to work? Many major retailers have struggled with this as a result of consumer outcry about disasters such as the Bangladesh factory explosion, which have highlighted previously unaccounted-for dangers of buying from the cheapest supplier. (See “Go Green With Socially Responsible Investing” for more information.)

The Economic Foundation
Most companies believe they are on solid ground when it comes to the economic foundation of sustainability. A enterprise must be successful in order to be long-term viable. Profit, however, cannot trump the other two foundations. In reality, the economic cornerstone isn’t about making money at any expense. Enforcement, proper administration, and risk control are all activities that fall under the economic pillar. Although these are now standard operating procedure for most North American businesses, they are not so in other parts of the world.

This foundation is also known as the government pillar, which refers to effective corporate governance. This ensures that both the boards of directors and executives are aligned with the needs of the owners.

Investors should want to recognize that a business uses reliable and consistent accounting procedures and that stockholders are given the right to vote on critical matters when it comes to governance. They will also want guarantees that businesses do not choose board members with conflicts of interest, do not use campaign donations to seek unduly preferential treatment, and, of course, do not partake in unethical activities.

It is the incorporation of the economic pillar and benefit that allows companies to participate in sustainability strategies. The economic foundation acts as a check on the drastic steps that firms are often pressured to take, such as abandoning the environment.

Sustainability’s Influence
For investors and executives, the big issue is whether or not longevity is beneficial to a company. All of the sustainability tactics have been co-opted from other industry campaigns such as Kaizen,6 community involvement, the BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal),7 talent development, and so on. Companies will update their commitments to basic targets like productivity, economic development, and shareholder value by giving them a greater purpose and some new deliverables to aim for.


Even more critically, a widely discussed sustainability agenda will result in intangible gains like civic goodwill and a positive image. Why not, if it lets an organization get recognition for what they’re actually doing? There isn’t a real business effect — yet — for businesses who can’t point to an overarching vision to change in all three pillars. Sustainability and a collective contribution to it seem to be being standard corporate standards, similar to how enforcement is with publicly listed firms. If this occurs, businesses without a sustainability strategy will face a business penalty rather than a market premium for constructive companies.

Sustainability, besides being a buzzword, is here to remain. For certain businesses, sustainability is a way to bring together disparate initiatives under one overarching term to achieve public recognition. For some, survival entails confronting difficult questions about the how and why of industry activities that may have a significant, although incremental, effect on their operations.

Final Thoughts

Sustainability refers to a company’s whole supply chain, and it necessitates transparency from the top down, all the way down to the manufacturers and sellers.

If making anything sustainably becomes a strategic advantage for supplying multinational companies, it could be necessary to reorganize some of the global supply chains that have evolved entirely on the basis of low-cost manufacturing. Of necessity, how deeply companies support sustainability and whether it is a sincere change of direction or merely lip service would determine this situation.

SRI (socially responsible investing) is a form of investment that takes into account social and environmental considerations in addition to conventional quantitative securities and investment analysis. We’ll go into SRI investments and what it can do with your portfolio in this report.


Socially conscious investments recognizes an investment’s social and environmental value.
Early socially conscious investors shied away from companies that produced alcohol, cigarettes, gambling, or firearms. Later, socially conscious investors shied away from businesses that made investments in South Africa during the apartheid era.

Screening for socially conscious investments does not always imply sacrificing investment efficiency.


Political and Religious Roots
SRI’s origins can be traced back to religious ritual. Religious businessmen shied away from companies that dealt with beer, cigarettes, gambling, and arms manufacturing in the 1800s. Opposition to the Vietnam War and apartheid in South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s paved the way for today’s socially conscious investing activities. 1

Calvert Social Investment Fund was the first mutual fund to ban investments in South Africa in 1982, laying the groundwork for the divestiture campaign against the country’s ethnic inequality regime.

Clean-tech investors (also known as green investors) have increasingly entered the SRI arena, looking for businesses that are interested in clean energy or other technology that help humans and the environment coexist. This is due to an increasing awareness that uneconomic development has significant social and environmental implications, and that money can be used to promote more productive growth.

Investing that is socially responsible is becoming more mainstream.

It’s impossible to offer a common concept of socially conscious investment when not everyone has the same beliefs.

Some investors are opposed to investing in businesses that deal with alcohol, while others love a healthy drink and think that investing in the industry is fine. However, there are several investments in which the socially aware are almost unanimous. For example, tobacco is almost uniformly despised.

Pioneer Fund was the first mutual fund to search for securities related to beer, cigarettes, and gambling in 1950.

 The Pioneer Fund, which was established in 1928, has rejected such investments for most of its existence, though its prospectus did not officially enforce this requirement until July 2018.


This is the method of identifying which shares should be avoided or which should be included in an investor’s portfolio depending on social and/or environmental requirements.

Screening for Negative Results

SRIs were created with the aim of avoiding investments in businesses that participated in undesirable practices, whether it was a brewery or a cigarette company. These negative screens will rule out investments in cigarettes, gambling, alcohol, or weapons production based on social or environmental criteria.

Positive/Inclusionary Screening
Good screening, also known as inclusionary screening, favors acquisitions in organizations with clear track records in areas such as the workplace, employee engagement, or diversity. Specific businesses in a sector are screened on social and environmental grounds to highlight their records in comparison to their rivals.

The negative screening method gave birth to this screening technique. When avoidance screens grew more advanced, some investors realized that rather than merely avoiding stocks, they could deliberately search out and include companies with attractive characteristics in their portfolios.

Companies are also routinely evaluated to see how sustainable they are as employers and whether or not they have a high and constructive social and environmental impact. In fields including mortgages and small business credit, positive screening is also used to help underserved populations.


Divesting shares refers to the process of excluding such stocks from a portfolio based on social or environmental factors. On Wall Street, there has always been the illusion that you can sell your stock and move on if you don’t like how a business is run.

While this may be clear and elegant in principle, there are often processing costs associated with entering or exiting a safe. Furthermore, many institutional investors have such huge stakes that selling them out can be exceedingly challenging and costly.

Shareholder Participation

Shareholder advocacy aims to change organizational action favorably, in the hope that the combined actions of social investors will encourage management to take a more proactive social and/or environmental path. Initiating meetings with senior management on matters of interest, as well as sending and voting on shareholder motions, are examples of these initiatives.

Issues like overseas jobs, sexism, marketing policies, and unfair executive pay are often challenged in the hopes of improving financial results and improving the well-being of stockholders, consumers, staff, retailers, and societies over time.

Final Thoughts

SRI proponents contend that scanning helps weed out firms with risks that aren’t readily apparent by conventional financial research. Critics, on the other hand, argue that any strategy that narrows the pool of possible assets would result in lower results. The argument will undoubtedly continue. However, there are reasons to think that socially responsible investment is not needed.

Sustainability is a vast field that provides students and graduates with knowledge of almost any area of human life, from industry and technology to the climate and social sciences. The key skills for which a graduate leaves college or university are in high demand, particularly in a modern world seeking to dramatically reduce carbon emissions while both discovering and developing future technologies. Culture, economics, philosophy, and other social sciences, as well as the hard sciences, are also used to support sustainability. As companies aim to comply with current laws, several corporate jobs at the graduate level and beyond prioritize sustainability expertise and environmental consciousness. 

As a result, sustainability graduates will work in a variety of areas, including civic planning, environmental consulting (both constructed and natural environments), agriculture, non-profit management, business strategy, wellness evaluation and planning, and even law and decision-making. Entry-level careers are on the rise, and bachelor’s graduates should expect more choices and prospects in the coming years.

Sustainability is one of the newest degree programs, attempting to combine social science, civic engineering, and environmental science with potential technologies.

When we hear the term “sustainability,” we usually think about clean energy sources, carbon reduction, environmental protection, and a way to hold our planet’s fragile habitats in check. In a nutshell, sustainability aims to safeguard our natural climate, human and ecological wellbeing, while also encouraging creativity and ensuring that our way of life is not jeopardized. Because of this increasing need, a master’s degree would not be needed for the majority of employment, as bachelor’s degree programs (and in certain situations even less) train people for careers in sustainability. Learn more about environmental degrees and curriculum options.

What are the primary sustainability objectives?
The specialist network for sustainable development speaks, operates, and operates on a global scale. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development convened in 2012 to address and formulate a series of priorities to work toward; they arose from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which reported progress in mitigating global poverty while recognizing that much more work remained to be done. The SDG finally came up with a list of 17 (8) pieces, which included items such as:

Poverty and malnutrition will be eradicated.

Better educational and healthcare standards, especially in terms of water quality and sanitation

To bring in gender equity

Ecologically sustainable

Finally, it recognized that nature has such rights, that humans have stewardship over the earth, and that placing people at the frontline of addressing the above global problems (9) by environmental and consumption management is critical (for example, reducing packaging and discouraging food waste as well as promoting the use of recyclable materials).

The Evolution of Sustainability

Humans have been a producer rather than a replenisher of natural wealth since the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and perhaps much before that. Hunter-gatherer groups that came into a region for a season to use up the resources before setting up camp or moving on, only to return the next year.

Environmental factors pushed people to make these changes in the first place (one of those pressures being the growing human population), and they also had to relocate to a different location where the environment could properly support them and their activities, or make more changes to their current environment. Even if people in the far past knew that land had a maximum productivity that could be drained and replenished with animals, there was no real idea of sustainable life.

Many cultures have crumbled as a result of their failure to respond to the circumstances created by these unsustainable activities (10). If it’s adding foreign animals that disturb the ecosystem’s equilibrium, felling too many trees at once, or failing to respond to natural temperature changes, we are far more mindful of the possible harm incurred by human activity in the real world. Cultural transition has also resulted in populations surviving longer than one would anticipate given the circumstances.

Though some Renaissance and Enlightenment thinkers expressed concern over wealth and overpopulation, and whether or not these issues could be sustained in the long run, these concerns were dismissed at the time. We wouldn’t really comprehend the effects we might have on the world until the twentieth century. Environmental destruction, deforestation, soil destabilization due to forest burning, fossil fuels, and other environmental concerns have contributed to an increasing debate about the environment and whether we were or could harm our own biodiversity. Following World War II, the United Nations was established, and UNESCO was established in 1945 to promote the importance of education.

Today, their mission is to “contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable growth, and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, connectivity, and media,” according to their website (15).

Climate change theory was well-established by the late twentieth century. We were aware of the greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone layer by the 1980s (12), and by the end of the century, we were aware that some of our resources – mostly fossil fuels – were scarce, and that we should make efforts to transition to renewable energy sources. We witnessed the social, physical, and science birth of the environment at that time.

A sustainable Future
While it is unclear what our sustainable future will look like, with new technology and the advancement of older cleaner fuel sources, many people, including companies, are now looking to a post-fossil fuel environment. We have seen exponential development since the 1950s, including intensive irrigation, a technological transformation, and a huge rise in our electricity demands (13, p2), placing much more strain on the planet’s capital.

We are now now more mindful of the situation of the developed world and the challenges that face our planet, when we now see both natural and human-caused disasters, as well as the consequences that they will have on habitats and human populations. To meet our energy needs, we must create innovative, renewable technology, but sustainability is about more than the atmosphere.

Programs like Fair Trade and the Rainforest Alliance encourage good agricultural practices while ensuring farmers who grow luxury products like coffee and cocoa earn a proper living wage. Activists and sustainability practitioners expect that in the future, trade barriers can be removed so that everybody benefits, leading to the economic and social change that is at the heart of sustainability while also encouraging sustainable environmental practices.