10 Requirements OF SURVIVABILITY

10 Requirements OF SURVIVABILITY

10 Requirements OF SURVIVABILITY

 The most fundamental survival items are based on the Five Cs of Survivability, which are a set of five criteria for ensuring long-term survival. For longer-term wilderness stays, you may broaden that checklist to include the following ten criteria:


Knives, axes, and saws are examples of cutting tools.
The following are examples of combustion devices: ferrocerium rod, lighter, and magnifying lens.

Clothing and outerwear for the season, tarps, wool blankets, a sleeping bag, an emergency bivvy, a hammock, and a small tent are all good options.
Water bottles, canteens, and nested cook pots and pans are examples of containers.
Cordage includes bankline, paracord, rope, webbing, and mule tape, among other things.



Cotton materials include bandannas, shemagh, netting, and shards of fabric.
Duct tape is used as cargo tape (I prefer the Gorilla Tape brand)
Headlamps, candles, and crank lights are examples of candling devices.
Compasses: your favourite brand, as well as a tiny backup, such as a high-quality button-style compasses.


Canvas repair needle: a wedge-style needle for mending heavy fabrics such as canvas and leather.
Don’t forget to pack any prescriptions, such as anything to ease an allergic response, as well as any first-aid kit goods you may need.
Now, let’s break down the equipment into sections so that you can take a good look at what you truly need.


Core Temperature Control is the first and most crucial area of equipment to understand. The most fundamental method of controlling temperature is via clothing. Here are some further, more specific recommendations:





Pack at least two complete pairs of socks and underwear, as well as a pair of pants and a shirt.
Make sure you include clothes that is comfortable in all seasons, or plan on packing enough clothing for two distinct climates (for a total of four sets). I would prefer 10–12-ounce sturdy canvas trousers, such as the tree-climbing pants supplied by Arborwear, for tree-climbing work. 


Comfortable in all seasons, long-sleeved, lightweight, canvas button-down shirts are a good choice in the summer, while cotton T-shirts allow you to take advantage of the cooling effect of evaporative cooling in the winter. Don’t forget to account for rain and other inclement weather.
Tentsmiths creates a robust raincoat out of cotton that has been treated with an oil/wax finish for durability.



To keep warm in winter, wear a thick wool layer that will work as an insulator, such as the merino wool pants available at Minus33. In general, nothing surpasses wool when it comes to keeping warm in cold weather regions. When it is wet, it still functions as an excellent insulator and is nice to sit on.



 It is also fire retardant and moisture resistant. Lester River Bushcraft’s Boreal Shirt is my personal favorite. In spite of the harshest winter days and nights here in the eastern forests, it has never failed to meet my expectations. If you’re worried about freezing rain and sleet, pair the wool with an oilcloth raincoat for more protection.





Long-term outdoor activities need the use of leather boots, which are very essential. Danner’s Pronghorn boot is a fantastic three-season footwear, and its Canadian edition is particularly useful in the winter months. Keep in mind that boots are only as waterproof as they are tall when it comes to picking your footwear.



 It will save you a lot of difficulty if you bring along a second pair of boots on long-term excursions so that you may rotate between them and prevent wearing them out too rapidly.


 If bringing a second pair of boots is too much trouble, at the very least plan to pack a pair of moccasins to wear while strolling about camp so that your boots may have a break every now and again. When stalking wildlife on dry leaves, moccasins, elk skin, or buffalo hide are also useful tools.





When it comes to preparing your equipment, never overlook the significance of headgear. A smart hat will shield you from the sun and help you to preserve body heat, which is mostly lost via the head and neck.


 A felted wide-brim hat is appropriate for wearing in the spring, summer, and autumn. 


In the winter, a wool beanie or a toboggan will be useful in combating the cold. The ancient leather bomber hats with earflaps and fur linings have provided me with a great deal of warmth and comfort in the most severe weather.





For hundreds of years, kerchiefs and scarves have been essential parts of the woodsman’s toolkit. Their applications extend well beyond the apparent. Cotton netting, which is employed as a sniper veil in the summer, also works well as an improvised fishing net because of its light weight. 


Kerchiefs made of cotton, such as the shemagh, are versatile and may be worn in all three seasons. In the winter, I like to wrap myself in a 4′ x 4′ scarf that not only keeps me warm but can also be worn as a cape to keep the snow at bay.





When doing routine camp tasks, a good pair of leather calfskin gloves will keep the hands safe from briars, brambles, and blisters. Polar fleece mittens with wool glove liners are a must-have in the winter months.


 I’ve discovered that keeping my extremities warm is equally as crucial as preserving heat in my core if I want to be comfortable for a whole day on the trail or trap line

How to Start a Fire in the Rainforest


 When it comes to packing tools, minimizing redundancy is what actually differentiates a smart kit from the others. Please allow me to spend a few minutes to outline some of the many possibilities for vital tools so that you can make an informed decision about what to include in your long-term kit.





Make a note of this acronym while acquiring equipment for your toolbox. In particular, it might be useful when attempting to pick between many different brands and styles:

Functionality—Is this instrument intended to be used for a single specified purpose only? Or might it be used to do a number of other things at the same time?
Adequacy in terms of cost—Does this tool fall within my financial constraints, particularly when taking into account the overall number of tools I need to acquire for my kit?


When it comes to repeatability, can I conduct tasks in the same manner with this tool and obtain the same outcome every time, or will there be a steep learning curve to mastering this tool?


Maintainability—Is this a tool that is simple to maintain over time with a minimal amount of peripheral equipment required?


Ergonomics—Does this tool feel comfortable in my hands based on my height and build?

Is it going to make me feel tired or uncomfortable while I’m using it?

Durability—Does the tool seem to be of high quality and will endure for many years if properly cared for?





These are the tools that should form the foundation of your toolkit. When determining which versions of these tools to include in your kit, consider the following factors: the environment, the sort of shelter you want to construct, and the amount of time you expect to be in the area:



Carving tool with a knife and an axe


When it comes to choosing a knife for your survival pack, the quantity of options available might be absolutely bewildering. It is a good idea to have a couple knives in your pocket for various jobs.



Three knives that are well worth having on hand: a 5″–6″ butchering knife, a paring knife, and a paring knife for slicing.


Fine-carving knife for delicate work

Folding knife made of high-carbon steel that may be carried about in a pocket.
Certain blade profiles are more suited for certain activities than others. When it comes to preparing game meat, a knife with a butchering profile will always be the best overall choice. Fine carving activities, including as boning and filleting, are best accomplished with a narrow blade width.



A significant component of your success in developing a longer-term survival kit that contains supplies for more sophisticated chores in the wilderness is going to be your ability to locate and harvest wildlife.


It is more important to process this game for food, tools, and skins than it is to carve notches, therefore you will need a blade that is specifically designed for this operation. 


A good size for a food processing knife is around 4″ in length “5” in length and about an inch or less in thickness. 


The most beneficial grind will be a Scandinavian (V) grind, but a flat grind will come in a close second.

Both blades are simple to maintain in the field, but they are also robust enough to serve as a primary blade if you ever need to replace one.




Recently, there has been a great deal of discussion about the potential of a sheath knife worn on the hip. Many people believe that a single instrument should be sufficient for a wide range of duties, from exquisite carving and processing game to splitting firewood. 

This is a mentality with which I tend to agree, particularly since even if you lose your pack, you will always have this knife with you at all times. Keep this in mind as you prepare to travel on a lengthy trip and practice using your knife for a variety of chores.




The jackknife, also known as a folding knife, has long been regarded the ideal tool for whittling and delicate carving in the eastern forests. Morakniv offers a high-quality selection of carving tools.



 I really like the crooked knife, sometimes known as a mocotaugan, which was a typical carry item for many indigenous peoples around the world. With this knife, which is comparable to the Bent Knife by Deepwood Ventures in design, you can do everything from cutting canoe paddles to fabricating new handles with relative ease.




In many parts of the nation, a machete, in conjunction with a smaller knife, may be the greatest choice of blade for survival situations. The benefit of using a machete is that it may be used to clear a route or remove branches from a tree in a short amount of time. It may also be used for scraping and crafting purposes. 




The machete, in my view, is the ultimate “woodsman’s companion.” Choose a size that is comfortable for you, but keep in mind that the distance between the tip of the blade and the base of the handle should be about equal to the distance between the elbow and the tip of the fingertip.




The primary axe you carry should have a handle length of at least 18″–20″ in length. For huge operations such as down large trees, a bigger axe with a handle length of 26″–28″ will be much more effective than a smaller one. 

Aside from the various handle combinations, there are several head shapes and profiles to choose from. A falling axe with a head weight of up to 3 pounds is suitable for the job of felling trees.


 When choosing an axe, the majority of the appropriate measurements are a matter of personal taste; nonetheless, I have discovered that a decent axe is worth its weight in gold on a long journey.




The tomahawk, a personal tool that is worn on the belt, has been in use for hundreds of years in Native American cultures. It is used as a back-up to a blade. For scraping and skinning, the tomahawk is particularly useful since the handle can be removed, allowing you to utilize the head alone as a scraping and skinning tool.



 Tomahawks are too tiny to process significant quantities of firewood or topple big trees, but their handles can be changed relatively simply if they are damaged, making them an excellent option for extended hikes or camping trips. 


There are many different types of tomahawks available on the market today, but the ones with heavier heads are the ones that are most useful for wood-processing jobs.





Individual requirements as well as the environment influence whether or not you should carry a tomahawk or a hatchet. A tiny hatchet of the crafting kind may be carried in addition to the main axe. Hatchets are small and lightweight, and they are extremely simple to handle with one hand. 



They may be worn on the belt. They are in helpful while working with fire materials since they allow for delicate cutting and little chopping. 


Try to find models with a midline blade that is positioned correctly when you choke up on the handle so that it may be used as a carving or skinning tool in addition to a choking tool. Heads in the manner of Hudson Bay are ideal for this purpose.




For as long as the blade is not overly aggressive, folding saws are a wonderful addition to your toolkit. When I say aggressive, I’m referring to a blade with bigger teeth and a broader kerf, or the gap between teeth; these blades are not intended for precision cutting. It is preferable to choose something with fewer teeth and a narrower kerf than something larger.



 I’ve seen a lot of folding saws on the market lately that have harsh pruning-type blades for green wood. The difficulty with the setup is that it restricts the saw’s potential applications. 



Using a folding saw as a notch-cutting saw is the most efficient use of the tool; as a result, a crosscutting blade will be much simpler to manage and your cuts will be lot cleaner.


There are many other models available on the market, but I have found that the Bahco Laplander model has the greatest blade for a folding saw and the longest blade life.


Saws with a fixed blade: These saws comprise not just crosscutting and dovetail saws, but also pruning blades, which are used to prune trees. You will choose the sorts of saws you include in your kit based on the tasks you want to do with them.


 If you are carrying a bucksaw or bow saw with a green-wood blade, a basic crosscut blade with somewhat finer teeth will be much more desired than a pruning-type greenwood blade, which will be considerably more difficult to work with.


Bow Saws and bucksaws (frame saws) are two types of bow saws. These are risk-free options, and their ease of usage allows you to save valuable calories. Include one of these in your winter survival pack, no matter how long you plan to be away. For longer-term kits, just ensure that the blade is at least 20 inches in length “The blade is both green-wood and dry-wood, and it’s rather lengthy. 



The durability of a bow (metal-frame) saw is one of its primary advantages. I would suggest them for long-term excursions and travel. Despite the fact that it is constructed of metal, the frame is essentially a hollow tube, which means that the weight difference is minor.



AWL The awl was one of the most often traded metal products during the American frontier era, coming in second only to the knife in terms of volume exchanged. Awls are tools used to make holes in a variety of materials, including leather, bark, and wood. Awls come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but the crooked awl is the most flexible. 



There are three or four sides to each point on these instruments, which are twosided. It is customary for the taper of the awl to be a bit different on opposing ends so that you have a little more flexibility while drilling holes.



A handle for one end of this instrument may be simply fashioned, and a hole can be quickly added for lock-stitch stitching chores if necessary.





In this area, you should consider how to achieve a decent night’s sleep in a variety of situations, both long- and short-term in nature. Even if you want to construct a permanent shelter, you must be prepared to construct a temporary shelter in the event that you are required to leave base camp for more than a day or two.



 It is sufficient in the coldest of conditions to use an 8′ 8′ minimum Egyptian cotton oilcloth tarp, such as the one available from Tentsmiths, along with a moisture barrier such as a tick mattress and a thick woolen blanket, such as the one available from Tentsmiths. 



Just make sure you have a comfortable bed and a fire to keep you warm. In addition to the Pathfinder 100 percent wool blanket from Self Reliance Outfitters, other three-season blankets such as Witney (available on eBay), Hudson’s Bay (available via Woolrich or L.L. Bean), and Tony Baker blankets will also perform well in this situation.



 It’s also worth looking through surplus shops for blankets that are guaranteed to be made of 100 percent wool. Any woolen blanket should be manufactured completely of wool and should be queen-sized or six-point in measurement, which is roughly 96″ by 96″, according to the manufacturer.




The usage of hammocks has several benefits, especially when used in a long-term shelter, and they provide a very good night’s rest. Since the 1800s, woodsmen have relied on them to get the job done. Older versions were made of balloon silk, rope netting, or canvas, among other materials. 



Balloon silk is not that dissimilar in consistency and weight to the parachute-type material that is now utilized to construct modern hammocks. When used in conjunction with a blanket, hammocks may be an excellent three-season alternative. When utilized with a quality underquilt, they may even be used in cold weather since the convection difficulties associated with hanging above ground are mitigated. 



In recent years, a large number of hammock manufacturers have introduced insect nets that are either incorporated into the hammock or offered as an add-on. These nets are used to form a screened enclosure, which provides additional protection from pests.





Small backpacking-style tents give comfort and protection against bugs and other wigglers when on the go. They have a few disadvantages, though, including the fact that their design limits your perspective and prevents you from using fire as a heat source. 



There is always a tradeoff when it comes to any piece of equipment! There are many various kinds of tents available on the market, but I would recommend choosing one that is constructed of the heaviest material you feel comfortable carrying. You will like the long-lasting nature of the product. 


The formation of condensation within tent walls throughout the night might make them seem cooler than an open shelter, which is another potential disadvantage to consider. Try to choose versions that have mesh tops and a rain flap, which will assist to ease the problem of condensation.


BIVVIES A bivvy is often a tiny tube-style bag that is designed to accommodate a single person and can be put up in a short amount of time. The same restrictions that apply to tents apply to bivvies as well: For best results, look for a sturdy material with mesh and a retractable rain flap that can be closed to assist avoid condensation.

Alternatively, some manufacturers provide bivvies that come with a sleeping bag, similar to a self-contained sleeping set.


TENT COTS There are also tent cots that are specifically designed for hunting purposes. These are fully self-contained tents and sleeping cots that are all in one package. They may be extremely comfortable and provide all of the benefits of both a raised bed and a closed tent in one package.





In a matter of minutes, ultralight cots may be transformed into a comfy elevated bed.
In addition to being exceptionally lightweight, these cots are also exceedingly compact, making them an excellent choice for getting a decent night’s sleep on extended trips.





Point blankets are a kind of wool trade blanket that is most closely linked with the Hudson Bay Company and its trading partners. Since 1779, these tried-and-true classics have been available for purchase in North America. Unlike other types of blankets, point blankets contain a sequence of colored lines (points) woven into fabric on one edge, each of which represents the blanket’s size. 



During the time of the fur trade, the biggest point blanket was a fourpoint blanket with dimensions of around 72″ by 90″. Modern point blankets are available in sizes ranging from one to six points, or roughly 96″ by 96″. Today’s language would indicate that a four-point blanket would suit a full-sized bed, and a six-point blanket would fit a queen- or king-sized bed.. 



Historically, these points were also used to indicate how many completed or “manufactured” beaver skins a blanket was worth in terms of beaver hides. This means that the value of a six-point blanket was comparable to the value of six “manufactured” beavers or the equivalent in another fur species